Answer ( 1 )

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     Planning refers to the process of choosing/computing the correct sequence of steps to solve a given problem.
     To do this we need some convenient representation of the problem domain. We can define states in some formal language, such as a subset of predicate logic, or a series of rules.
     A plan can then be seen as a sequence of operations that transform the initial state into the goal state, i.e. the problem solution. Typically we will use some kind of search algorithm to find a good plan.

    Common Techniques:
     Even apparently radically different AI systems (such as rule based expert systems and neural networks) have many common techniques.
     Four important ones are:
    Knowledge Representation: Knowledge needs to be represented somehow – perhaps as a series of if-then rules, as a frame based system, as a semantic network, or in the connection weights of an artificial neural network.
    Learning: Automatically building up knowledge from the environment – such as acquiring the rules for a rule based expert system, or determining the appropriate connection weights in an artificial neural network.
    Rule Systems: These could be explicitly built into an expert system by a knowledge engineer, or implicit in the connection weights learnt by a neural network.
    Search: This can take many forms – perhaps searching for a sequence of states that leads quickly to a problem solution, or searching for a good set of connection weights for a neural network by minimizing a fitness function.

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