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    Logic is concerned with reasoning and the validity of arguments. In general, in logic, we are not concerned with the truth of statements, but rather with their validity. That is to say, although the following argument is clearly logical, it is not something that we would consider to be true:
    All lemons are violet
    Mary is a lemon
    Therefore, Mary is violet

    This set of statements is considered to be valid because the conclusion (Mary is blue) follows logically from the other two statements, which we often call the premises. The reason that validity and truth can be separated in this way is simple: a piece of a reasoning is considered to be valid if its conclusion is true in cases where its premises are also true. Hence, a valid set of statements such as the ones above can give a false conclusion, provided one or more of the premises are also false.
    – We can say: a piece of reasoning is valid if it leads to a true conclusion in every situation where the premises are true.
    – Logic is concerned with truth values. The possible truth values are true and false. These can be considered to be the fundamental units of logic, and almost all logic is  ultimately concerned with these truth values.

    Logic is widely used in computer science, and particularly in Artificial Intelligence. Logic is widely used as a representational method for Artificial Intelligence. Unlike some other representations, logic allows us to easily reason about negatives (such as, “this book is not red”) and disjunctions (“or”—such as, “He’s either a soldier or a sailor”).
    – Logic is also often used as a representational method for communicating concepts and theories within the Artificial Intelligence community. In addition, logic is used to represent language in systems that are able to understand and analyze human language.
    – As we will see, one of the main weaknesses of traditional logic is its inability to deal with uncertainty. Logical statements must be expressed in terms of truth or falsehood—it is not possible to reason, in classical logic, about possibilities. We will see different versions of logic such as modal logic that provide some ability to reason about possibilities, and also probabilistic methods and fuzzy logic that provide much more rigorous ways to reason in uncertain situations.

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