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  1. Address Buffer Block Diagram 

    The address buffer ID (ABI) is assigned when a new continuation for a speculative thread is created. When a speculative read request is issued by a thread, the address of the data being read is stored in the address buffer assigned to the thread and the entry is set to valid. When a speculatively read data is subsequently written by a non-speculative thread, the corresponding entries in the address buffers are invalidated, preventing speculative threads from committing. The block diagram of address buffer for a 4-SP node is shown in Figure 2. This design allows invaliding a speculatively-read data in all threads simultaneously. It also allows different threads to add different addresses into their buffers. When an “invali- date” request comes from the bus or a write request comes from inside the node, the data cache controller will change the cache line states, and the speculative controller will search the address buffer to invalidate appropriate entries.

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Address-Buffer-Block-Diagram_fig2_221312876

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